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The Haber Process

Industrial Conditions.

This reaction is reversible (shown by the reversible arrow arrow).
The forward reaction (from left to right) is

nitrogen   +   hydrogen    reversible arrow    ammonia   ( + heat).
N2(g)     +     3H2(g)       reversible arrow      2NH3(g)    (
+ heat)

The industrial conditions are
1) Temperature between 450 °C and 500 °C.
2) Pressure of 200 atm (200 atmospheres).  
3) Use an iron catalyst.                                 

Only about 15% of the reactants are converted into products
under these conditions.
Ammonia is cooled and liquefied at the reaction pressure,
and then removed as liquid ammonia.
The remaining mix of nitrogen and hydrogen gases (85%)
are recycled and fed in at the reactant stage.
The process operates continuously.

In the next few pages we shall look in detail
at the conditions used in industry for this process.

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