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Extraction of Metals
Extraction of Titanium.
The extraction of titanium uses the Kroll
Titanium ore is called rutile. Rutile contains titanium dioxide - TiO2.
Titanium dioxide is converted into titanium chloride - TiCl4.
Titanium is more reactive
than carbon but it is
not extracted by electrolysis because titanium chloride is covalent
and therefore does not conduct electricity.
Titanium chloride is a yellow liquid (melting point is -24 °C).
It is unusual for a metal to form covalent bonds.
sodium are used
to reduce titanium chloride to titanium metal.
This is an example of a metal displacement reaction.
The reaction is carried out in an argon atmosphere to prevent
magnesium or sodium from reacting with oxygen in the air.
+ titanium chloride magnesium chloride + titanium.
2Mg(l) + TiCl4(l) 2MgCl2(l) + Ti(s)
+ titanium chloride sodium chloride
4Na(l) + TiCl4(l) 4NaCl(l) + Ti(s)
and sodium, both expensive metals,
are used up in the production of titanium.
Titanium is therefore more expensive than either
magnesium or sodium and has limited specialised uses.
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