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Water - Solubility - Ions

Temporary and Permanent Hardness.

Both calcium hydrogencarbonate and
magnesium hydrogencarbonate decompose (split up)
when they are heated.
The original insoluble carbonate is reformed.
This happens when water is boiled.

calcium hydrogencarbonate arrow carbon dioxide water + calcium carbonate.
Ca(HCO3)2(aq)             arrow          CO2(g)     +    H2O(l)   +       CaCO3(s)

magnesium hydrogencarbonate arrow carbon dioxide + water + magnesium carbonate
Mg(HCO3)2(aq)             arrow          CO2(g)     +    H2O(l)   +       MgCO3(s)

Boiling the water causes the precipitation of
solid calcium carbonate or solid magnesium carbonate.
This removes the calcium ions or magnesium ions from the water,
and so removes the hardness. Therefore,
hardness due to hydrogencarbonates is said to be temporary.

Other types of calcium ion or magnesium ion in water
such as calcium chloride - CaCl2, calcium sulfate - CaSO4,
magnesium chloride - MgCl2 or magnesium sulfate - MgSO4
are not removed by boiling the water.
These ions in water are said to cause permanent hardness.
Calcium sulfate is called gypsum.

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