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Elements which exist as Atoms.

Just as one mole of carbon atoms has a mass of 12 g,

so the mass of one mole of the atoms of any element
is its "relative atomic mass" in grams.

For example,
look up the relative atomic mass of sodium (Na),
(the green number above it in the periodic table).
One mole of sodium has a mass of 23 g.

One mole of
helium has a mass of 4 g,
neon has a mass of 20 g,
magnesium has a mass of 24 g,
calcium has a mass of 40 g.

This is easy for elements that exist as atoms.
What about elements that exist as molecules or compounds?

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