Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
What are the Structure and Properties of
a Solid, Liquid and Gas?
What is the Structure of a Solid?
A solid has a regular
arrangement of particles
(atoms, ions or molecules). The particles are close
together and cannot move around so the shape of a solid
is fixed. A solid is said to have long range order which means
that the regular arrangement of particles keeps
repeating itself over and over for a huge number of particles.
What are the Properties of a Solid?
A solid cannot be compressed because the particles are
close together. If a solid is heated its volume will increase
as the temperature increases. This happens because the
particles vibrate more and move a little further apart
causing a decrease in density. A solid has a fixed shape.
What is the Structure of a Liquid?
A liquid has an arrangement of particles that are close
(like a solid) but the particles are free to move because the
force of attraction between the particles is weaker than it is
in a solid. A liquid is said to have short range order
which means that the arrangement of particles
only repeats itself for a small number of particles.
What are the Properties of a Liquid?
A liquid will flow to take the shape of its container.
If a liquid is heated its volume changes with temperature
in the same way as a solid (see above). A liquid cannot
be compressed because the particles are close together.
What is the Structure of a Gas?
has no order, its particles
are arranged at random.
The particles in a gas are so far apart that there is
no force of attraction between them. The particles are
unaware of each others existence unless they collide.
What are the Properties of a Gas?
A gas will fill the whole volume of its
A gas is easily compressed. The speed of the particles in a
gas increases as the temperature increases. This causes
the pressure of a gas to increase as the temperature increases.
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