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Atomic Structure

What is a Giant Molecule? - What is Carbon?

A covalently bonded substance containing a huge number
of atoms is called a giant molecule or a giant covalent lattice.

There are four examples of molecules (made from non-metals)
which form giant structures. They are silicon, silicon dioxide and
two forms of the element carbon called diamond and graphite
(polymers are a different kind of large molecule).

When two (or more) forms of an element
exist in the same physical state, they are called allotropes.
Diamond and graphite are allotropes of carbon.
Carbon can exist as fullerenes as well as diamond and graphite.

Carbon and silicon are both in group 4 of the periodic table.
They both need to form 4 bonds with themselves or
other elements. They have valency 4.
Valency is the combining power of an atom.

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