Atomic Structure

The Reaction between Sodium and Chlorine.

Chlorine has 7 electrons in its outer shell.
It is in group 7 of the periodic table.

When an atom of chlorine reacts
it will gain one electron from sodium.
The outer shell of chlorine will then
have 8 electrons and be full.
The chloride ion will have an extra electron and
therefore an extra negative charge (shown as a - sign).

The Formation of Sodium Chloride from Atoms.

The electrostatic force of attraction between the
oppositely charged ions is called an ionic bond.

The electrons are shown as dots and crosses
to show how they have moved during the reaction.
In reality all electrons are identical.

The balanced chemical equation for the above reaction is

sodium + chlorine  arrow   sodium chloride.
2Na(s)  +    Cl2(g)   arrow              2NaCl(s)

Sodium chloride is a crystalline ionic compound.
It forms a giant structure.

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