Acids and Alkalis
When a substance dissolves in water,
the solution may be acidic, neutral or alkaline.
What is an Acid?
An acid is any substance that produces
H+ ions or H3O+ ions in water
(compare this with the definition of an alkali or base).
H+ ions are called hydrogen ions,
H3O+ ions are called hydroxonium ions.
You will mostly see acids in reactions
In reality, H+ is a single proton, and does not exist on its own.
It always attaches to something,
in water it joins to H2O to form H3O+ ions.
website will use either H+(aq) or H3O+(aq)
to mean acid in water.
This definition of an acid was given by Arrhenius,
see also Lowry and Brønsted.
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