Acids and Alkalis
Examples of Acids.
The three common acids you will find in the laboratory are
acid - HCl(aq), Nitric
acid - HNO3(aq)
and Sulfuric acid - H2SO4(aq)
They are all strong acids - see
They all ionise (make ions) in water forming
hydrogen ions (H+ ions). This is what makes them acids.
HCl(aq) H+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
HNO3(aq) H+(aq) + NO3-(aq)
H2SO4(aq) H+(aq) + HSO4-(aq)
These three acids are all examples
of hydrogen compounds with non-metals.
Hydrochloric acid is
Nitric acid is hydrogen nitrate (in water).
Sulfuric acid is hydrogen sulfate (in water).
Sulfuric acid is made using the contact process.
The above acids
are called mineral acids
because they were originally obtained from minerals in rocks.
Oxides of non-metals
are acidic - see CO2,
(compare these with metal oxides).
See also carboxylic acids.
Hydrogen oxide (H2O) is Water - it is neutral, see Water.
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