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Waves

The Total Internal Reflection of Light in Prisms.

A right angle prism can be used to change the direction of
a light ray by 90 degrees or 180 degrees.
A prism can also be used to disperse white light into a spectrum.

How is a Right Angle Prism used to
Change the Direction of a Light Ray by 180 degrees?

A right angle prism can be used to change the direction of light
by 180 degrees, as shown in the picture below.

Prism turning Light through 180 - Total Internal Reflection

The same effect can result from having two
right angle prisms
arranged as shown in the picture below.

Two Prisms turning Light through 180 - Total Internal Reflection

Either of these arrangements may be used to make binoculars
or the plastic reflectors on the rear of cars and bicycles.

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